Architecture has undergone a long period of development from the prehistoric period to the present. The change in this process has been in the architecture itself, and then it has spread to other variables, and sometimes it has become the opposite. So much so that architecture; It is a branch that makes concrete readability. For instance, when we look at Medieval Europe, we can say that the scholastic thought (¹) form, which was formed by the oppressive effect of the church on society, caused the emergence of gothic cathedrals, that is, social change influenced architecture. Architecture; it is obvious that it is a project created from the economic, social and cultural foundations of societies. These works, where all the variables of the period are embodied, are like a show using history as a stage. Now we can examine this multisite relationship with examples.
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The design processes of the Gothic architects of the period have been limited by many factors. For example, the formation of structures through vertical elements is a reflection of Christianity’s understanding of the celestial faith at that time. In addition, reliefs and stained glass in gothic cathedrals (²) are designed to visually convey the Christian faith to the public. Architects saw this as a kind of worship; As in the Pyramids of Egypt… To say that; next to the feudal system and central kingdoms that pushed Europe to such a radical change; Inferences can be made by looking at the reflections of the events such as the Roman Church Struggles and the Crusades. Many historians in different disciplines have already taken their place in the literature.
On the western side of the Notre Dame Cathedral, important religious events are illustrated by visualizing the illiterate people. These three large gates are built with embossed reliefs. Main Gate of the Virgin Mary; Virgin Mary, Last Judgment Door; the reign of Jesus, ten virgins, including the living of the dead, the St. Anne’s Gate; She tells the stories of Mother Mary of Mother of St. Mary.
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A little more to the conditions of the period we give the example; In a European order that revolves around the wishes of the church, the nobles and the bourgeoisie, it cannot be said that neither art nor architecture has turned its wheel around a free axis. Of course, this order, which frees itself from the people, has begun to some extent, and the Renaissance period, which means can rebirth, revival, has begun. The awareness created by rational thought has lifted the amateur that the religious pressure created on civil life. With the transition to a secular society; The architecture, which proceeds over religious buildings, has now broken its shell and turned to new types of structures. Building types such as public or housing have begun to be studied. Reform movements and the Enlightenment Period followed the Renaissance. And the Industrial Revolution, which we can call the second big change in the history of mankind, started.
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‘Can we say that the Industrial Revolution actually gave rise to scholastic thought? But architects and artists had an impact ın? If we think indirectly, yes, we can say … How successful could the idea of turning the world around a thought? People have overstepped this order, which prevented them from using their minds, by using their minds. They realized that they could reach real and useful information by using only mind and started to work in this direction. Newton has made progress in physics and mathematics. Copernican; He advocated a system in which the Sun is in the center, and said that the Sun revolves around the Earth, not around the Earth. Galileo has proven the Earth to be round. Dekart developed analytics and geometry. Along with all these, social issues have been started to be covered in the works of literature. There are many more like this … The stage order in history has come to those who have the courage to use your mind. In short, the works of that period; it is not just about architecture or art historians; At the time, all the things gathered under the Church’s religious, cultural and political crises in the face of the reform sheds light on intellectual processes.
Andrew Leach, What is the History of Architecture? In his book ‘Architecture as Historical Evidence’, he states: ” Every kind of architectural work is based on the intellectual history, social history, history of the population, history of culture, history of the institution, military history, history of religion, history of science, political history, national and of regional histories, of course, history of art, technology and history of construction, or urban history; all these dates can approach the way architectural history deals with architectural issues. Eyes that look at the works of architecture can learn a lot about the period of the work. Who knows what the eyes are talking…’’
1- It is oppressive and dark thought arising from the bigotry of the Catholic church. Research, thinning and scientific activities are prohibited.
2- Sculpture and glass decorations.