While the new construction materials and construction methods in the 19th century construction sector were on the verge of attack, there was a technology race among the countries. Countries began to use architecture as a tool to show their superiority to each other and a new type of structure called baş exhibition structures was born. The first world fair was opened in London in 1851 and the world met with the Crystal Palace.
At that time, the Kristal Palace had a very different feeling than the usual space experiences. First of all, the feeling of spaciousness created by the iron and glass materials used for the first time has attracted everyone. The fact that the daylight is completely absorbed into the structure has left the place of traditional architectural indoor space to open spatial continuity. The way of using glass in architecture has changed, and the glass has now become a material in the design. The maximum size of the period produced by using the largest size glass sheets were used. We can even say that; The building is shaped by the size of the glass. Thus, the glass facade was one of the first structures we see the application.
The building is designed as an exhibition space, but Paxton has made it a little more fun. He did this by playing with the landscape, using sculptures in places and coloring. In addition, by adding trees and fountains adjacent to the artwork to make it a little bit sympathetic, it has added to the design of the structure instead of cutting the existing trees. For the giant trees, the building is organic and the roof is covered with a glass dome.
The structure is of great importance in terms of construction technique; prefabricated iron carriers and glass plates placed between these carriers. Thus, the thick walls we are accustomed to are removed, the carrier elements are examined, the construction details are refined and the interior space is fresh … The building is one of the first examples of new building materials, cast and forged iron. Columns and beams are prefabricated. In the assembly stages, firstly, a hydraulic press is tested on the construction site and then assembled with the help of cranes. One of the most important reasons for the Crystal Palace to be a sign of the present and the future; all components are produced industrially and assembled in a short time by prefabrication method. The building is very popular; Another advantage of the on-site mounting application was also removed and the dismantled parts were reassembled in the Sydenham Hill suburb of London after 6 months.
We cannot pass without saying that the building is an engineering wonder for the period. For the first time they applied a number of experiments for some possibilities they had doubts about their method and material reactions. They wanted to build a small version of the project and measure the reaction of the structure against the vibration that would be created by the human density. At first, they carried out about 300 construction workers in a small version of normal, followed by an irregular rhythm and jumped. After doing this experiment with different people, it was seen that the stretching was about half a cm. So the structure test passed and the construction continued.
This new construction approach, which was brought to the agenda by Kristal Saray, continued to show itself and spread in other countries in the following years. The use of iron as a carrier material and the formation of the cover of this material with glass left a very important effect, then became a role model for the architects.
(1) Fair; industry, agricultural and commercial products and their services are exhibited, technical developments are introduced, the information exchange of buyers and sellers encountered, the region and the country has an important role in the development of a particular group of goods or a large number of products opened, predetermined places and times opened, especially important industry established in Turkey, agriculture and trade centers. (Bozkurt,2001).